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The Department of English and Film Studies at Wilfrid Laurier University welcomes applications to our graduate programs for Fall 2021 admission. We offer two graduate degrees:

M.A. in English and Film Studies
Ph.D. in English and Film Studies

Graduates from our programs have continued on into careers as university professors, librarians, editors, marketing and communications officers, filmmakers and producers, advertising and graphic design specialists, teachers, and lawyers. Students appreciate our department’s caring, close-knit community, our efforts to integrate research and teaching, and the high level of individual attention they receive from our faculty. All students in our programs are fully-funded with a combination of TAships and scholarships. Canadian students are encouraged to apply for Ontario Graduate Scholarships and SSHRC Graduate Scholarships.

M.A. in English and Film Studies
The M.A. can be completed in an intensive 8-month program (coursework only) or 12-month program (coursework + Professional Skills Practicum). The Professional Skills option provides M.A. students with direct work experience and practical applications of their skills. Students in this option have worked for The New Quarterly journal, Laurier’s Office of Communications and Public Affairs, and the Grand River Film Festival. We also offer a Major Research Paper option that can be completed in the summer term.

M.A. Student Funding
Students with a minimum average of B+ are guaranteed a highly competitive funding package of at least $14,500 per year as well as teaching experience in our first-year introductory courses in English or Film Studies.

Ph.D. in English and Film Studies
Our Ph.D. program provides students a unique opportunity to pursue rigorous, specialized research in either Literary Studies or Film Studies, or to take advantage of the rich intellectual and theoretical confluence between the two disciplines. We are deeply committed to the academic and professional development of our students. Students are given the opportunity to professionalize through their teaching, presentations, colloquia, research, and assistantships. Our areas of strength include Canadian literature, Asian cinema, feminist and gender theory, American cinema, Victorian literature, affect and memory studies, popular culture, and digital media. Students have access to the Tri-University Library system and an extensive film collection. 
Ph.D. Student Funding
Students with a minimum average of A- are guaranteed a funding package of $22,000 per year for four years. All students gain teaching experience, and a number of them have the opportunity to work as research assistants.

Sample Courses:

  • Women and Crime in Fiction and Film
  • Topics in Canadian Literature
  • Dangerous Medieval Sexualities
  • Mapping South Asian Canadian Literature
  • Posthuman(ist) Memory in Film and Fiction
  • Topics in Romantic Literature and the Victorian Novel
  • Film Historiography
  • Graphic Novel Adaptation Films

For more information, visit the web pages for the M.A. and Ph.D. programs, or contact the Graduate Program Coordinator, Eleanor Ty,


The Transgender Media Lab (TML) at Carleton University investigates the aesthetic, political, and cultural work of audiovisual media created by transgender, Two Spirit, nonbinary, intersex, and gender-nonconforming filmmakers and artists. As part of that investigation, the lab is building the Transgender Media Portal, a collaborative digital tool that will enable new ways of analyzing these works and their circulation while making information about them available to trans arts communities and the public.


This year we have 5 positions for new graduate students!


MA: Transgender Media Lab Fellowship (x 2!)

We are seeking two MA students to conduct original thesis research on some aspect of transgender, Two Spirit, nonbinary, intersex and/or gender-nonconforming film- and video-making in Canada or the United States and to contribute to the development of the Transgender Media Portal. Host program: Film Studies at Carleton University. For more info on this position see:


MA: Contributor Experience Designer

We are seeking an incoming MA student to lead the user experience and interface redesign for the Transgender Media Portal and to manage volunteer contributor outreach and training. We welcome applicants who are applying to these or other degree programs: Communication, Computer Science, Digital Transformation & Innovation, Feminist & Gender Studies, or Information Studies at the University of Ottawa. For more information on this position see:


MA: Transgender Digital Privacy and Security Analyst

We are seeking an incoming MA student to design and analyze approaches to digital privacy and security for the Transgender Media Portal. Host program: Human-Computer Interaction at Carleton University. For more information on this position see:


PhD: Front End Developer & Analyst

We are seeking an incoming PhD student to lead front end development and analysis for the Transgender Media Portal. We welcome applicants who are applying to the following or other degree programs: Communication, Computer Science, Digital Transformation & Innovation, Feminist & Gender Studies, or Information Studies at the University of Ottawa, or Communication, Computer Science, Cultural Mediations, or Information Technology at Carleton University. For more information on this position see:

These positions are run in collaboration with the Humanities Data Lab at the University of Ottawa and the Security and Privacy Interactions Research Lab at Carleton University. Questions? Feel free to reach out to TML director Laura Horak at

Call for Applications 
MA in Film Studies 
Carleton University-Canada’s Capital University. 
Ottawa, ON  

Carleton University’s Film Studies Program invites applications to its MA program for the 2021-2022 academic year. Applications received by February 1, 2021 will receive priority consideration. Admission decisions will be made by late February-early March. The Program may consider late applications.  

Carleton University’s Film Studies program is a student-centered, globally focused, and interdisciplinary program that teaches critical, theoretical, and historical approaches to cinema and emerging media. Students learn to think analytically and express themselves clearly while developing specialized knowledge about history, aesthetics, and film as a social and cultural practice. Our internationally recognized faculty are engaged in innovative research with numerous books, articles, grants, and awards to their credit. Our program offers a collegial, supportive, and student-friendly atmosphere conducive to success, with a faculty committed to student mentorship. 

Areas of faculty expertise include world cinema (e.g., the cinemas of Africa, Asia, Scandinavia, Western Europe, Canada, and the United States), film theory and philosophy, film history, documentary film and media, Indigenous film and media, video games and new media, queer and transgender media, and sound studies.  

Our program welcomes applications from students with an undergraduate degree in Film Studies and cognate disciplines such as Communication, Journalism, Art History, Music, Literature, Indigenous and Canadian Studies, Women’s and Gender Studies, History, etc. Students may supplement their studies with a specialization in African Studies or the Digital Humanities.  

During their studies, students may qualify for internships which provide them with practical film- and media-related experience and opportunities to work with Ottawa-area arts institutions, companies, and associations including film festivals (Canadian Film Institute, Ottawa International Animation Festival, InsideOut Ottawa LGBT Film Festival, One World Film Festival, Digi60 Filmmakers’ Festival), archives and museums (Library and Archives Canada, Ingenium: Canada’s Museums of Science & Innovation, Carleton’s Audio-Visual Resource Centre) and film production and exhibition facilities (SAW Video Media Art Centre, Independent Film Cooperative of Ottawa). 

Carleton University offers generous and highly competitive funding packages. Admission funding may take the form of one or more of the following: Teaching Assistantships (TAships), Domestic Entrance Scholarships, Merit Scholarships, Donor-Funded Awards Research Assistantships (RA), etc. For fall 2021, we are also offering additional fellowships through our new Transgender Media Lab initiative:  

Established in 1977, Carleton’s Film Studies is one of the oldest and most prestigious programs in Canada. Members of our faculty helped found the discipline’s professional society, the Film Studies Association of Canada, and have held various offices over the years. Three past presidents of FSAC are members of our faculty, and the association’s journal, The Canadian Journal of Film Studies, was recently housed at Carleton. Present and past members of faculty also serve or have served on the editorial boards of Camera Obscura, JCMS: The Journal of Cinema and Media Studies, Revue Cinémas, Animation Journal, Studies in French Cinema, Journal of Scandinavian Cinema, The Soundtrack, Film History, Performance Matters and Positif, etc. 

Carleton University is strongly committed to fostering diversity within its community as a source of excellence, cultural enrichment, and social strength. We especially encourage and welcome submissions from those who would contribute to the further diversification of our University including, but not limited to: women; visible minorities; First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples; persons with disabilities; and persons of any sexual orientation or gender identity and expressions. 

For more information, please visit our website: For questions, please contact Dr. Aboubakar Sanogo, Graduate Supervisor at  


The Graduate Program in Communication and Media Studies in the Department of Communication, Media and Film at the University of Calgary is now accepting applications from prospective MA and PhD students for September 2021. The application deadline is December 1, 2020. 
Our growing program offers opportunities for interdisciplinary media and communications studies research across several areas, including:
-Digital media cultures, platforms, & politics
-Environmental media
-Feminist media studies
-Film and visual cultures
-Health communication
-Media Histories
-Telecommunications policy

More information about our program and how to apply can be found on our website:  or contact us at
We also have several exciting research initiatives launching, including the new Environmental Media Lab: 
We offer competitive funding packages and affordable living in a diverse urban center at the foot of the Rocky Mountains.  
Come study with us!

Call for Applications:

Graduate Degrees in Film/Cinema & Media Studies at York University

Applications are invited to the Graduate Program in Film/Cinema & Media Studies at York University. Applicants who apply by January 15, 2021 will be given first consideration. Applicants will be contacted by late February – early March 2021. Late applications may be considered.

Apply here for MFA and here for MA/PhD

Since our inception in 1980 as Canada’s first Graduate Program in Film, our community of award-winning faculty, supportive staff, outstanding students, and successful alums has stimulated comprehensive, interdisciplinary, and rigorous engagement with the moving image in all its forms, both historical and contemporary.

Building on York’s longstanding commitment to deliver innovative and accessible post-graduate training and rooted in the centre of English Canadian film and media culture and production, the Graduate Program in Film/Cinema & Media Studies offers a curriculum that encourages dynamic and collaborative interactions between creative artists and scholarly researchers.

In our two-year MA and MFA programs, flexible, interdisciplinary, student-centred curriculum allows students the freedom to fulfill their unique academic, creative and professional aspirations with ample time to benefit from York University’s rich tradition of being at the vanguard of interdisciplinary research, media creation, knowledge mobilization, and dedication to social justice, diversity, equity, and sustainability.

Canada’s most respected graduate MFA in Film Production and Screenwriting leads students to confront the challenges posed by the fast-changing worlds of digital cinema and transmedia platforms. The MA in Cinema & Media Studies emphasizes the critical study of a broad range of film and media in a small cohort of highly motivated students. Each student creates an individually tailored program from our dynamic range of courses, and from our diverse workshops, partnerships, internships, and research labs. Together students engage evolving theories and practices of global and local cinema and media, including new directions in post-colonial, feminist, queer, Indigenous, and underground expression, and media forms like film, television, games, and expanded cinema like augmented and virtual reality. Expertly guided by chosen faculty, the MFA program culminates in the creation of an original Thesis project, while the MA program has a Major Research Paper as its capstone.

Domestic Master’s students receive base funding of $10,000/year + York’s $1000 FGS Healthcare Bursary. With York University’s emphasis on access in higher education, our graduate students pay the lowest graduate tuition in Ontario. Admission scholarships and awards are also available. In recent years, over 70% of MA & MFA students have received additional funding through awards like CGS-M ($17,500/year) and OGS ($15,000/year), usually in their second year, in part due to the Program’s emphasis on strong professional development, including grant writing. MFA students are provided with in-kind equipment/services grants from a wide range of Toronto co-ops, equipment houses and post-production facilities, and production grants from donors. 

Teaching, publication, and professional academic development are key components of the PhD, a minimum four-year degree with guaranteed funding for five years. In addition to generous York professional development funds, our students receive national, provincial and university-widescholarships and awards. Current PhD students includeVanierElia and Trillium scholars, and numerous SSHRC and OGS doctoral awards.

Outstanding faculty are leaders in their fields; three faculty members are current or former Canada Research Chairs and all of our faculty participate actively in international and Canadian festivals, conferences, and publish widely. Many of our faculty pursue interdisciplinary research methodologies, including research creation, an increasingly popular option in the PhD program.

Our students, faculty, and large alumni network are part of Toronto’s lively and diverse film and media culture and its many opportunities for festival programming, curation, symposia, and lectures. The City of Toronto, housing Canada’s most important media industry infrastructure, provides students with exceptional opportunities for field placements, access to film screenings, museums and galleries, festivals (over 100 film festivals occur each year, including the Toronto International Film Festival, Hot Docs, Reel Asian, and Images Festival, and resources like the Liaison of Independent Filmmakers (LIFT), the Ontario Archives (now housed on York University campus), TIFF’s Film Reference Library, and other unique research collections. 

In the MA & PhD programs, we welcome applicants with educational backgrounds in Cinema/Film Studies, Media Studies, Communications, Cultural Studies, Digital Media, Art History, English, Women’s Studies, Queer and Sexuality Studies, History, Comparative Literature, Philosophy, Education, Urban Studies, and other disciplines that nurture research in sound and moving image media. The MFA film production and screenwriting program is catered mainly towards mid-career filmmakers with a track record in producing media.

For students preparing for a future in the media industries, we also offer a 3-year joint MA/MBA or MFA/MBA degree with the world-renowned Schulich School of Business. Most students undertaking the joint degrees take their first year in the Graduate Program in Film/Cinema & Media Studies, and start the MBA portion in their second year.

Each year the program selects a small group of exceptional students to join its vigorous and stimulating intellectual community, where students attend small and engaging seminars and receive close attention from faculty supervisors.  Our degree programs provide specialized training for careers in academic, research, and government organizations and arts and entertainment industries (television, film, new media, including festivals), and in jobs in producing, programming and curation, teaching, critical writing and publishing, publicity, among others.

Students interested in the PhD programs are encouraged to contact Prof. Janine Marchessault, PhD Graduate Program Director, Students interested in the MFA and MA program are encouraged to contact Prof. Manfred Becker, MFA/MA Graduate Program Director, For questions related to the application process please contact Kuowei Lee, Graduate Program Assistant,





Department of Cinema and Media Arts, The School of the Arts, Media, Performance and Design (AMPD), York University

The Department of Cinema and Media Arts, The School of the Arts, Media, Performance and Design (AMPD), York University invites highly qualified candidates to apply for a professorial stream tenure-track appointment in Media Arts at the Assistant Professor level, to commence July 1, 2021. Salary will be commensurate with qualifications and experience. All York University positions are subject to budgetary approval.

This opportunity is open to qualified individuals who self-identify as Aboriginal (Indigenous), and/or as Black peoples of African Descent (for example Africans and African heritage people from the Caribbean, Americas, Europe), and/or as members of other visible minorities (racialized groups). Recognizing the underrepresentation of Black, Indigenous, and other faculty of colour in the arts, this opportunity is to support the University’s Affirmative Action program and has been developed based on the special program provisions of the Ontario Human Rights Code. The position is part of a cohort hire of fourteen new colleagues at York University, including hires across a number of faculties and a wide range of areas and fields. The successful candidate will be joining a vibrant scholarly community at York, where we aspire to achieve equity and diversity in all areas, including race equity.

The Media Arts BFA combines critical thinking with hands-on experience in innovative studio courses that focus on digital technologies (from social media to diverse screen technologies). The overriding philosophy of the degree emphasizes critical practice, collaboration, flexibility, resourcefulness and problem-solving across various media platforms. The ideal candidate will have an established artistic and critical practice that engages issues faced by racialized and marginalized communities along with relevant professional and academic experience that addresses these issues.

A PhD or a PhD near completion by the start of the appointment in Media Studies, Visual Culture, Communications, Digital Media, Cinema and Media Arts or a related field is required, with a demonstrated record of excellence or promise of excellence in research/research-creation and in teaching. Applicants should have a clearly articulated program of research, research-creation, or professional practice and specialize in one or more of the following areas: media arts, immersive media, expanded cinema, media installation, interface design, interactive storytelling. The applicant’s experience in working with racialized and marginalized communities in the creation of media, storytelling, archives, narrative experiences, community-led research, and other forms of advancing social justice and equity will be considered a significant asset. The applicant will also have expertise in a range of technologies and platforms used in creating interactive media.

Candidates must provide evidence of research and creative excellence or promise of research and creative excellence of a recognized international calibre as demonstrated in: the research/research-creation statement; a record of exhibition or publication (or forthcoming exhibitions and publications) in significant venues or with significant journals in the field; presentations at major media events conferences or; awards and accolades; and strong recommendations from referees of high standing.

The successful candidate will have the capacity to engage in outstanding, innovative, and, as appropriate, externally funded research/research-creation at the highest level. We acknowledge that within higher education in Canada, traditional or conventional academic pathways in research can reinforce biases in the filling of faculty posts. We encourage applications that may not fit this mold and challenge traditional notions of scholarship and research.

The position involves graduate teaching and supervision, as well as undergraduate teaching and the successful candidate must be eligible for prompt appointment to the Faculty of Graduate Studies.

Evidence of excellence or promise of excellence in teaching will be provided through: the submitted teaching statement; teaching accomplishments and pedagogical innovations including in high priority areas such as experiential education and technology enhanced learning; teaching evaluations; and strong letters of reference.

York University champions new ways of thinking that drive teaching and research excellence. Through cross-disciplinary programming, innovative course design, diverse experiential learning and a supportive community environment, our students receive the education they need to create big ideas that create an impact on the world. Located in Toronto, York is the third largest university in Canada, with a strong community of 53,000 students, 7,000 faculty and administrative staff, and more than 300,000 alumni.

York University has a policy on Accommodation in Employment for Persons with Disabilities and is committed to working towards a barrier-free workplace and to expanding the accessibility of the workplace to persons with disabilities. Candidates who require accommodation during the selection process are invited to contact Caitlin Fisher, Chair of the Department of Cinema and Media Arts, in the School of the Arts, Media, Performance and Design, York University, at

This selection will be limited to individuals who self-identify as Aboriginal (Indigenous), Black or members of other visible minorities (racialized groups). York University is an Affirmative Action (AA) employer and strongly values diversity, including gender and sexual diversity, within its community. York University encourages Aboriginal (Indigenous), Black peoples or members of other visible minorities (racialized groups) to self-identify as a member of one or more of the four designated groups: women, members of visible minorities (racialized groups), Aboriginal (Indigenous) people and persons with disabilities. The Affirmative Action program can be found at or by calling the AA line at 416-736-5713. Applicants wishing to self-identify as part of York University’s Affirmative Action program can do so by downloading, completing and submitting the form found at: All qualified candidates are encouraged to apply; however, Canadian citizens, permanent residents and Indigenous peoples in Canada will be given priority. No application will be considered without a completed mandatory Work Status Declaration form which can be found at

The deadline for receipt of completed applications is December 1, 2020. A letter of application with an up-to-date curriculum vitae, a statement of research/research-creation and teaching portfolio (including teaching philosophy, syllabi, and sample assignments) and three letters of reference should be sent to: Professor Caitlin Fisher, Chair of the Department of Cinema and Media Arts, in the School of the Arts, Media, Performance and Design, York University, at


Screening Censorship Conference:

New Histories, Perspectives, and Theories on Film and Screen Censorship
Ghent/Brussels, 16-17 October, 2020 Organized by: Daniel Biltereyst & Ernest Mathijs


On Friday and Saturday, 16 and 17 October, 2020, the Centre for Cinema and Media Studies in the Department of Theatre and Film of the University of British Columbia, together with the University of Ghent and the Film Fest Ghent host the Screening Censorship Conference, a free online conference. 

The program is available here. More information on the website:

Call for papers

The body on the screen and the body of the screen have always formed a compelling and productive pairing. From apparatus theory to production and exhibition histories, these two conceptualizations of cinematic bodies remain valuable avenues for reflecting on the use of images, their visibility, materiality, and presentation. As cinema continues to fracture and expand across our cell phones and living spaces, the screen is increasingly tangible, mobile, and ubiquitous. Like the mobile toys and popular illusions preceding modern cinema, these forms of new media present particular bodies on particular screens. The unifying darkness of the movie theatre is being replaced by a brighter multiplicity of global media objects, at once scattered and reconciled through social media, streaming platforms, and the internet in general. Even as borders and nations are re-entrenched, international connections are being forged. Though research on the body of the screen (in exhibition histories, affect theory, and tactility) and on the body on the screen (in critical theory on the making of race and gender) has proliferated in recent years, bringing the two together will produce a more nuanced consideration of how and who we are watching today.

In Cinephile 15.1, our goal is to bring these two types of bodies into conversation with one another and with ongoing discussions around each conceptualization of cinematic bodies. Our hope is to develop insights as to how bodies are being shown relative to screen technologies. As such, we invite scholarship on cinema’s multiple bodies. This includes papers on screen bodies (sites of exhibition and media histories) as well as bodies on screen (representations of race, gender, sexuality, disability) and especially research joining the two. Special preference will be given to papers discussing visual media.  

Possible topics can include (but are not limited to) any of the following: 

  • Media history and archaeology 
  • Representation of bodies on screen in terms and at the intersection of gender, race, disability, sexuality 
  • Materiality of film and the digital, in terms of the image or exhibition technology
  • Movement of bodies on screen in dance, pornography, fight sequences, mannerisms 
  • Encounters between film technology and form
  • Representation in Hollywood of celebrity, beauty, norms
  • Cross-cultural and international examinations of the body on screen
  • Alternative exhibition practices and histories
  • Relationship between body and screen, offering sensuality and/or violence 

We encourage submissions from graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, and established scholars. Papers should be between 2,000-3,500 words, follow MLA guidelines, and include a detailed works cited page, as well as a short biography of the author. Submissions should be directed toward SUBMISSIONS@CINEPHILE.CA and general inquiries toward INFO@CINEPHILE.CA.

Submissions are due by October 11, 2020.

Cinephile is the University of British Columbia’s film journal, published with the continued support of the Centre for Cinema Studies. Previous issues have featured original essays by such noted scholars as Lee Edelman, Slavoj Žižek, Paul Wells, Murray Pomerance, Ivone Marguiles, Matt Hills, Barry Keith Grant, K.J. Donnelly, and Sarah Kozloff. Since 2009, the journal has adopted a blind review process and has moved to annual publication. It is available both online and in print via subscription and selected retailers.

Incoming editors: Harrison Wade and Kate Wise

Job Title: Interim Associate Dean, Animation and Game Design
Faculty/Department: Faculty of Animation, Art and Design
Location: Oakville, Ontario, Canada

Sheridan is currently seeking to fill an Interim Associate Dean position (14-month contract) within the Animation and Game Design programs. The successful candidate will be a strategic and operational leader, balancing and aligning the vision, objectives and planning of Sheridan with those within the FAAD. The Interim Associate Dean is responsible for providing leadership to faculty, staff and students in a number of specified programs within the Faculty. 

With a leadership approach that is inspiring, inclusive, responsive, collaborative, creative, and nimble, the Associate Dean position will cultivate a workplace of inclusivity and diversity while continuing to strive for outstanding course curriculum and delivery.

Specific Responsibilities include:

  • Building (with faculty) a strong identity, positive reputation, and clear sense of mandate and direction for the School/Department and Faculty through the achievement of shared educational objectives that are current, effective, relevant to student needs and workplace expectations, as well as consistent with the strategic direction of the College and Faculty;
  • Strategic planning and actively participates and is instrumental in the development, implementation and leadership of the Faculty strategic plan as part of the academic planning process of the College; 
  • Providing leadership in ensuring a high quality of teaching and faculty commitment to professional development and currency in their discipline, profession and industry; 
  • Facilitating a sense of shared responsibility among faculty and staff for the strategic development and management of enrolment plans, program budgets and effective and efficient allocation of work and resources to address both immediate operational requirements and longer-term program and institutional priorities;
  • Leading strategic development and management of budgets including an efficient allocation of fiscal and physical resources to services.

The ideal candidate will have a passion for education, a Masters degree (Ph.D. is an asset), and ideally, a proven track record of outstanding leadership experience within a post-secondary institution.

Sheridan is deeply committed to promoting diversity, advancing equity and fostering a culture of inclusion. Therefore, we invite applications from marginalized and equity-seeking groups, particularly members of BIPOC communities. Persons with a disability may contact the Human Resources department to request accommodation at any stage of the recruitment process.

Consideration of candidates will begin September 4, 2020; however, the posting will be “Open until Filled.” The anticipated start date for this position is November 1, 2020

Details :


FSAC Statement on Copyright and Online Screening

[Version française ci-bas]

Since the emergence of dedicated courses and departments in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the teaching of Film Studies in universities and colleges has depended upon consistent access to a full range of film and related audio-visual media content for screening in classes. This access is a cornerstone of teaching film and media studies at the post-secondary level – in fact, no academic discipline is more dependent upon this access.

Copyright legislation in Canada sets out to ensure a reasonable balance between the rights of content creators and the rights of users and consumers of that content. It is as concerned about enshrining the rights of the latter as it is about the rights of the former. Copyright law in Canada allows for a considerable range of rights for educators of film and media studies, notably through Fair Dealing (section 29) and exemptions for Educational Institutions (sections 29.4 and 29.5).

The current global pandemic has forced a radical transformation of post-secondary course content delivery. Yet, while the pandemic has made necessary an almost total, temporary transition to online teaching, this format of instruction existed before COVID-19, and will surely continue once this global crisis has receded. Though the circumstances necessitated by the COVID-19 crisis has brought this issue to the fore, we believe that the conclusions found here regarding screening practices in an education environment extend beyond this immediate historical context.

The Film Studies Association of Canada encourages educators of film and media studies in Canada to embrace the full scope of rights accorded to them through the Canadian Copyright Act. The regular screening of motion pictures, both in their entirety and in shorter excerpts, is the foundation of teaching Film Studies in Canada. This is an entirely educational exercise, and presents no competitive challenge to the marketplace of copyrighted audio-visual content. Section 29 of the Canadian Copyright Act clearly indicates that “Fair dealing for the purpose of research, private study, education, parody or satire does not infringe copyright.” Further to this, Section 29.5 allows for “the performance in public of a cinematographic work, as long as the work is not an infringing copy” on the premises of an educational institution, for educational purposes, to an audience of consisting primarily students. Courses taught through existing college or university infrastructure in an online environment are understood as “on premises” of that institution. Section 29.4 states that it is not an infringement of copyright for an educational institution to reproduce a work for the purposes of education.* In short, it is not an infringement for reproductions of a legally obtained copyrighted work to be exhibited to students, for the purposes of education, through official university or college online infrastructure.

Educators should make a reasonable effort to incorporate into their classes film and media titles currently licensed to their institutions via streaming platforms (Kanopy, Criterion-on- Demand, etc.). However, educators should not be expected to entirely reconfigure their courses solely around the online collections licensed to institutions, nor should universities and colleges be obliged to spend very large sums to acquire further licensed copies through such services for films and other AV material that they already own in other formats, and which they already have the right to show in the classroom at no charge. It should also be noted that these commercially available streaming services have limited holdings, and to expect educators to remodel the entirety of Film Studies curricula based on the holdings of these services and their collections is not only unrealistic, but in the case of certain course offerings, simply impossible. An insistence upon this would represent a serious threat to the pedagogical integrity of the discipline and the policies aimed at Equity, Diversity and Inclusion (EDI). Universities have adopted such policies in order to decolonize and diversify the curriculum. It is well known that many of the more common platforms have limited range of titles, often with a decided focus on filmmaking by white and largely male directors from the English-speaking western world. While every reasonable effort should be made to make use of the licensed, digital content available to educational institutions, a strict adherence solely to these collections would unquestionably represent a barrier to the best educational experiences of students and to Equity, Diversity and Inclusion policies of the university.

Most university and college film and media studies departments across the country have physical archives of legitimate, legally obtained copies of films and related media products, which they rely upon for in class screenings. In instances where required titles are not reasonably accessible via currently held online licensed services and platforms, instructors should be allowed to make this content available to students, under very specific circumstances. These film and media titles could be streamed via an e-learning platform employed by the host institution for its registered students, effectively reproducing as closely as possible a typical in-person classroom screening experience.

Further to this, and ultimately a decision for the instructor of any given course, we believe that AV content needs to be available to students in an asynchronous format. There are simply too many hurdles associated with online learning that risk prejudicing the experiences of students burdened by technological limitations. Technological barriers should not be an impediment to a fully realized learning experience. Educators should have the right to make AV content available in an asynchronous format – in other words, when licensed content is unavailable, instructors should be able to make unlicensed content available (from a legitimate, legally and commercially obtained source) to students in an asynchronous format. Every effort should be made to ensure that students cannot easily download the file, or use it for non-educational purposes (i.e. making the content available for streaming, as opposed to simply posting a digital copy for download.) Students should be consistently reminded that all copyrighted material in a course is to be used exclusively within that educational context. Instructors and educational content providers (i.e. university libraries and AV resource centers) must ensure that any digitized copyrighted material made available by them through the mechanisms of the online infrastructure needs to be removed from this infrastructure upon conclusion of the course. All course material that contains any copyrighted material, licensed or otherwise, should always be password-protected, and access should be strictly limited to students enrolled in the course.

Ultimately, educators should always operate under the frameworks permitted by their institutions and in alignment with EDI. We encourage film and media instructors to work closely with the relevant personnel at their institution to develop practices and standards that make full use of the rights accorded through Canadian copyright law.

Prepared by the FSAC ad hoc committee on online screening, with assistance from Lisa Macklem and Samuel E. Trosow.

*  Section 29.4 (3) explains that this exemption does not apply if the work is “commercially available.” Commercially available is defined in section 2 as “(a)available on the Canadian market within a reasonable time and for a reasonable price and may be located with reasonable effort,” or; “(b) for which a licence to reproduce, perform in public or communicate to the public by telecommunication is available from a collective society within a reasonable time and for a reasonable price and may be located with reasonable effort.” We do not believe that it is reasonable for an educational institution to repurchase, in another format, copies of films that it already owns and has rights to exhibit, nor do we feel it is reasonable to place the burden of cost onto students. These are expenses that would not exist in an in-person teaching environment.



Déclaration sur le droit d’auteur et la projection en ligne de l’ACÉC

Depuis l’émergence de cours et de départements dédiés à la discipline au cours des années 60 et au début des années 70, l’enseignement des études cinématographiques dans les universités et les collèges dépend d’un accès constant à une gamme complète de films et de contenus audiovisuels connexes pour la projection en classe. Cet accès est une pierre angulaire de l’enseignement des études cinématographiques et médiatiques au niveau postsecondaire. En fait, aucune discipline universitaire n’est plus dépendante de cet accès.

La législation canadienne sur le droit d’auteur vise à assurer un équilibre raisonnable entre les droits des créateurs de contenu et les droits des utilisateurs et des consommateurs de ces contenus. Elle est aussi soucieuse de consacrer les droits des seconds que les droits des premiers. À l’heure actuelle, la loi sur le droit d’auteur au Canada accorde un éventail considérable de droits aux éducateurs en études cinématographiques et médiatiques, notamment par le biais de l’utilisation équitable (article 29) et des exemptions pour les établissements d’enseignement (articles 29.4 et 29.5).

La pandémie mondiale actuelle a forcé une transformation radicale de la prestation du contenu des cours postsecondaires. Pourtant, alors que la pandémie a rendu nécessaire une transition presque totale et temporaire vers l’enseignement en ligne, ce format d’enseignement existait avant la COVID-19, et se poursuivra sûrement une fois que la crise mondiale aura passé. Bien que les circonstances nécessitées par la crise de la COVID-19 aient mis cette question au premier plan, nous pensons que les conclusions trouvées ici concernant les pratiques de visionnement dans un environnement éducatif vont au-delà de ce contexte historique immédiat.

L’Association canadienne d’études cinématographiques encourage les éducateurs en études cinématographiques et médiatiques au Canada à embrasser toute l’étendue des droits qui leur sont accordés par la Loi canadienne sur le droit d’auteur. La projection régulière de films, à la fois dans leur intégralité et en extraits plus courts, est le fondement de l’enseignement des études cinématographiques au Canada. Cet exercice est entièrement éducatif et ne présente aucun défi concurrentiel pour le marché du contenu audiovisuel protégé par le droit d’auteur. L’article 29 de la Loi canadienne sur le droit d’auteur indique clairement que « L’utilisation équitable d’une œuvre ou de tout autre objet du droit d’auteur aux fins d’étude privée, de recherche, d’éducation, de parodie ou de satire ne constitue pas une violation du droit d’auteur. » De plus, la section 29.5 permet « l’exécution en public d’une œuvre cinématographique, à condition que l’œuvre ne soit pas un exemplaire contrefait » dans les locaux d’un établissement d’enseignement, à des fins éducatives, à un public composé principalement d’étudiants. Les cours dispensés au moyen d’un logiciel collégial ou universitaire dans un environnement en ligne sont considérés comme « dans les locaux » de cette institution. L’article 29.4 stipule que ce n’est pas une violation du droit d’auteur pour un établissement d’enseignement de reproduire une œuvre à des fins éducatives.* En bref, dans le cas de la reproduction d’une œuvre protégée légalement obtenue, il ne s’agit pas d’une infraction que de la présenter aux étudiants, à des fins d’éducation, par le biais de l’infrastructure en ligne officielle d’une université ou d’un collège.

Les éducateurs devraient faire un effort raisonnable pour incorporer dans leurs cours des titres de films et de médias actuellement sous licence à leurs établissements via des plateformes de streaming (Kanopy, Criterion-sur-demande, etc.). Cependant, les enseignants ne devraient pas avoir à reconfigurer leurs cours uniquement autour des collections en ligne sous licence aux établissements, ni les universités et les collèges ne devraient-ils être obligés de dépenser beaucoup d’argent pour acquérir d’autres copies sous licence par le biais de ces services pour les films et autres matériels audiovisuels qu’ils possèdent déjà, et pour lesquels ils ont déjà les droits de diffusion gratuite en classe. Il convient également de noter que ces services de diffusion en continu, disponibles commercialement, ont des collections limitées et que non seulement est-il irréaliste d’attendre des enseignants qu’ils remodèlent l’intégralité des programmes d’études cinématographiques en fonction des fonds de ces services et de leurs collections, mais dans le cas de certaines offres de cours, cela est tout simplement impossible. Une insistance sur ce point représenterait une menace sérieuse pour l’intégrité pédagogique de la discipline et les politiques visant l’équité, la diversité et l’inclusion (EDI). Les universités ont adopté de telles politiques afin de décoloniser et de diversifier les programmes. Il est bien connu que bon nombre des plateformes les plus courantes ont une gamme limitée de titres, souvent avec un accent décidé sur la réalisation de films par des réalisateurs blancs et majoritairement masculins du monde occidental anglophone. Bien que tous les efforts raisonnables doivent être faits pour utiliser le contenu numérique sous licence mis à la disposition des établissements d’enseignement, une adhésion stricte uniquement à ces collections représenterait incontestablement un obstacle aux meilleures expériences éducatives des étudiants et aux politiques d’équité, de diversité et d’inclusion du Université.

La plupart des départements universitaires et collégiaux d’études sur le cinéma et les médias à travers le pays possèdent des archives physiques de copies légitimes et légalement obtenues de films et de produits médiatiques connexes, sur lesquels ils comptent pour les projections en classe. Dans les cas où les titres requis ne sont pas raisonnablement accessibles via les services et plates-formes sous licence en ligne actuellement détenus, les enseignants devraient être autorisés à mettre ce contenu à la disposition des étudiants, dans des circonstances très spécifiques. Ces titres de films et de médias peuvent être diffusés via une plate-forme d’apprentissage en ligne utilisée par l’institution éducative pour ses étudiants inscrits, reproduisant ainsi aussi fidèlement que possible une expérience de projection en classe.

Finalement, nous pensons que le contenu audiovisuel doit être disponible pour les étudiants dans un format asynchrone, selon la décision prise par l’instructeur d’un cours donné. Il y a tout simplement trop d’obstacles associés à l’apprentissage en ligne qui risquent de nuire aux expériences des étudiants accablés par des limites technologiques. Les barrières technologiques ne devraient pas être un obstacle à une expérience d’apprentissage pleinement réalisée. Les enseignants devraient avoir le droit de rendre le contenu audiovisuel disponible dans un format

asynchrone. En d’autres termes, lorsque le contenu sous licence n’est pas disponible, les formateurs devraient être en mesure de rendre disponible du contenu sans licence (à partir d’une source légitime, obtenue légalement et commercialement) aux étudiants dans un format asynchrone. Tout doit être fait pour que les élèves ne puissent pas facilement télécharger le fichier ou l’utiliser à des fins non éducatives (c’est-à-dire rendre le fichier disponible pour diffusion en continu, au lieu de simplement publier une copie numérique pour téléchargement). Il convient de rappeler systématiquement aux étudiants que tout le matériel protégé par le droit d’auteur d’un cours doit être utilisé exclusivement dans ce contexte éducatif. Les instructeurs et les fournisseurs de contenu éducatif (c’est-à-dire les bibliothèques universitaires et les centres de ressources audiovisuelles) doivent veiller à ce que tout matériel numérisé protégé par le droit d’auteur mis à disposition par les mécanismes de l’infrastructure en ligne soit retiré de cette infrastructure à la fin du cours.

En fin de compte, les éducateurs devraient toujours opérer dans les cadres autorisés par leurs institutions et conformément à l’EDI. Nous encourageons les professeurs de cinéma et de médias à travailler en étroite collaboration avec le personnel concerné de leur établissement pour élaborer des pratiques et des normes qui utilisent pleinement les droits accordés par la loi canadienne sur le droit d’auteur.

Preparé par le comité ad hoc de l’ACÉC sur la projection en ligne, avec l’aide de Lisa Macklem et Samuel E. Trosow.

*  Le paragraphe 29.4 (3) explique que cette exemption ne s’applique pas si l’œuvre est
« accessible sur le marché ». « Accessible sur le marché » est défini comme « a) qu’il est possible de se le procurer, au Canada, à un prix et dans un délai raisonnable, et de le trouver moyennant des efforts raisonnables; » ou « b) pour lequel il est possible d’obtenir, à un prix et dans un délai raisonnables et moyennant des efforts raisonnables, une licence octroyée par une société de gestion pour la reproduction, l’exécution en public ou la communication au public par télécommunication, selon le cas. » Nous ne pensons pas qu’il soit raisonnable pour les universités de racheter dans un autre format des copies de films dont elles sont déjà propriétaires et ont les droits de diffusion, et nous ne pensons pas non plus qu’il soit raisonnable d’imposer le fardeau des coûts aux étudiants. Ce sont des dépenses qui n’existeraient pas dans un environnement d’enseignement en personne.